Topic: Thinking


Truth: Awareness Of Faulty Thinking - Avoid Thought Viruses
If you lack awareness, it is easy to be confused/mislead into reaching false conclusions. Watch for these 50+ logical errors/fallacies.

01 Abusive Personal Attack: shift attention away from facts by personally attacking the individual presenting the argument |IR-h1

02 Ambiguity/Unclear Meaning: structure the wording of a claim to create two or more possible meanings |UR-d1

03 Analogy, Faulty: a comparison which is alike in some respects doesn't mean it is similar in other or all important respects |UR-e7

04 Authority (Questionable/Irrelevant): use the opinion of an authority who may be unqualified in current field or biased |IP-a4

05 Before Therefore Cause/ Post Hoc: assume that if one event comes before another it is the cause of the second |IG-f6

06 Black & White/Either-Or/False Dilemma: overlook other answers by restricting choices (contraries as contradictions) |UR-e6

07 Change Meaning of Word (Equivocation): shift the meaning of a key word in an argument resulting in deception |UR-d4

08 Circular Argument/True By Definition: use the conclusion as one of the premises (reassert conclusion without evidence) |UR-c1

09 Cliché/Aphorism: cover for lack of evidence with cute phrase, parable, or story |IG-g4

10 Composition (Parts to Whole): if each part has a quality the whole must have the same property (good players =good team) |UR-e1

11 Compromise/Moderation/Golden Mean: assume a moderate view is best because it is the middle or least offensive view |UR-e4

12 Confusing Necessary & Sufficient Condition: meet a necessary condition but not meeting all sufficient ones |IG-f2

13 Distinction without Difference: attempt to distinguish from a similar losing argument with clever wording |UR-d3

14 Diversion (Whole to Parts): if a whole has a property or quality then each part must also have it (good team = good player) |UR-e3

15 Domino Effect/Slippery Slope: argue against by linking a first decision with possible unproved negative future outcomes |IG-f3

16 Double Standard/ Special Pleading: rule applies to you but it doesn't apply to me because of a poorly supported exception |IG-g7

17 Evidence, Denying: refuse to seriously consider or acknowledge evidence which is opposition to claim |IR-i1

18 Evidence, Ignoring / (1 Sided Assessment): ignore negative evidence or omitting it as though it was not relevant |IR-i2

19 Evidence, Omission: fail to include critical positive evidence which supports the claim being made |IG-g6

20 Fake Precision/Unknowable Statistic: present mathematical precision or essentially unknowable statistics as fact |IG-g3

21 False Hypothesis/Predict "if": state as fact hypothetical claims about what would happen under different conditions |IG-g2

22 False Opposites /Illicit Contrast (not P -> not Q): assume an unstated related contrasting claim |UR-e10

23 Flattery/Excessive Praise: provide praise or flattery instead of evidence |IP-b7

24 Force/Threat/Intimidation: use intimidation or threat instead of presenting evidence or proper argument |IP-b1

25 Gambler's Fallacy/False Probability: think past independent chance events effect the odds or probability of future events |IG-f4

26 Generalization (Sweeping)/General Principle Misuse: assume no exceptions to general rule / use exception to disprove rule|UR-e9

27 Guilt By Association: use a negative view of the company kept by an opponent instead of presenting evidence |IP-b5

28 Humor/Ridicule: avoid appropriate arguments by distracting with humor or attacking with ridicule |IR-j3

29 Ignorance, Arguing From: state a conclusion as true because it hasn't been proven false (or false because not proven true) |IG-g1

30 Innuendo/Suggestion without Evidence: implicitly suggest a claim without actually stating it (to discredit an argument) |UR-d2

31 Is-Ought/Status Quo/Inertia: if it is done now, then it should continue or the reverse (if not done then don't start) |UR-e8

32 Label, Inference from: use a label attached to a person or thing as a though it were a sufficient reason to reach a conclusion|IG-g5

33 Leading Question: phrase a question unfairly or in a biased manner to force desired answer |UR-c2

34 Loaded-Complex Question: present assumptions/premises in a question which force acceptance regardless of the answer |UR-c3

35 Neglect Multiple Cause /Common Cause: think one event causes another when both are actually effects of a separate cause |IG-f5

36 Novelty/New Is Good: it is good just because it is different from the past |UR-e5

37 Out Of Context/Improper Accent: shift tone of voice to alter meaning of a quote or presenting it out of context |UR-d5

38 Oversimplification: use insufficient factors to account for an event |IG-f1

39 Past context Applied Now/Genetic: use evaluation from past context and applying it to present changed context |IP-a3

40 Pity/Mercy: appeal for special treatment based on sympathy as a distraction from relevant evidence |IP-b3

41 Poisoning The Well/Damning Source: attack motives to discredit possible future points (suggesting lying/hidden agenda) |IR-h2

42 Popular Opinion/Bandwagon/Polls/Everyone Does It: urge acceptance or rejection of an argument because many others do |IP-a1

43 Rationalize/Believe Then Prove: hide real reasons for a position with better sounding false/weak ones |IP-a5

44 Red Herring/Side Issue: attempt to divert attention from a weakness by presenting a distracting side issue |IR-j2

45 Sample, Insufficient: reach a conclusion about the whole population based on a sample that is too small |IG-g8

46 Sample, Unrepresentative: use biased, exceptional, or an unrepresentative sample of a population to represent the whole |IG-g9

47 Self Interest/Personal Circumstance: appeal to an opponent's personal interest or circumstance instead of a valid argument |IP-b2

48 Small Difference Irrelevant/Continuum: think a small change in a sequence doesn't matter so there is no true cut off point |UR-e2

49 Straw Man: distort or misrepresent an opponent's argument in order to make it easier to refute or attack |IR-j1

50 Strong Feelings/Mob-Crowd Appeal: appeal to mass enthusiasm or popular opinion with no supporting evidence |IP-b6

51 Tradition/Past is Best: appeal to reverence or respect for tradition to avoid presenting evidence |IP-b4

52 Trivial Objection/Minor Point: attack a minor point as though it was a major one (believing this defeats whole argument) |IR-j4

53 Vague Expression: assign a very specific meaning to an opponent's vague term and then attack the interpretation |UR-d6

54 Wrong Conclusion/Non-Sequitur: present evidence for one conclusion and then stating another |IP-a2

55 You Do It To/Two Wrongs Make A Right: suggest a position is reasonable because your opponent acts in a similar way |IR-h3 


4 Categories of Logical Fallacies in 10 Groups

1) IRRELEVANT PREMISE [IP]
   
A)Irrelevance/Unrelatedness
   B)Emotional Appeal

3) INSUFFICIENT GROUNDS [IG]
   
F)Causal
   G)Missing Evidence

2) UNACCEPTABLE REASON [UR]
   
C)Begging the Question
   D)Linguistic Confusion
   E)Unwarranted Assumption

4) INEFFECTIVE REBUTTAL [IR]
   
H)Attacking the Person
   I)Counter Evidence
   J)Diversion


By Category/Group:


(A) Irrelevance/Unrelatedness [IP]
-Authority (Questionable/Irrelevant) #04 
-Past context Applied Now/Genetic #39 
-Popular Opinion/ Bandwagon/ Polls/ Everyone Does It #42 
-Rationalize/Believe Then Prove #43 
-Wrong Conclusion/Non-Sequitur #54 

(B) Emotional Appeal [IP] 
-Flattery/Excessive Praise #23 
-Force/Threat/Intimidation #24 
-Guilt By Association #27 
-Pity/Mercy #40 
-Self Interest/Personal Circumstance #47 
-Strong Feelings/Mob-Crowd Appeal #50 
-Tradition/Past is Best #51 

(C) Begging the Question [UR] 
-Circular Argument/True By Definition #08 
-Leading Question #33 
-Loaded-Complex Question #34 

(D) Linguistic Confusion [UR] 
-Ambiguity/Unclear Meaning #02 
-Change Word Meaning (Equivocation) #07 
-Distinction without Difference #13 
-Innuendo/Suggest without Evidence #30 
-Out Of Context/Improper Accent #37 
-Vague Expression #53 

(E) Unwarranted Assumption [UR] 
-Analogy, Faulty #03 
-Black-White/Either-Or/False Dilemma #06 
-Composition (Parts to Whole) #10 
-Compromise/Moderation/GoldenMean #11 
-Diversion (Whole to Parts) #14 
-False Opposites /Illicit Contrast #22 
-Generalization (Sweeping)/General -Principle Misuse #26 
-Is-Ought/Status Quo/Inertia #31 
-Novelty/New Is Good #36 
-Small Difference Irrelevant #48  
(F) Causal [IG] 
-Before Therefore Cause/ Post Hoc #05 
-Confusing Necessary & Sufficient -Condition #12 
-Domino Effect/Slippery Slope #15 
-Gambler's Fallacy/False Probability #25 
-Neglect Multiple/Common Cause #35 
-Oversimplification #38 

(G) Missing Evidence [IG] 
-Cliché/Aphorism #09 
-Double Standard/ Special Pleading #16 
-Evidence, Omission #19 
-Fake Precision/Unknowable Statistic #20 
-False Hypothesis/Predict "if" #21 
-Ignorance, Arguing From #29 
-Label, Inference from #32 
-Sample, Insufficient #45 
-Sample, Unrepresentative #46 

(H) Attacking the Person [IR] 
-Abusive Personal Attack #01 
-Poisoning The Well/Damning Source #41 
-You Do It To/2 Wrongs Make A Right #55 

(I) Counter Evidence [IR] 
-Evidence, Denying #17 
-Evidence, Ignoring (1Sided) #18 

(J) Diversion [IR] 
-Humor/Ridicule #28 
-Red Herring/Side Issue #44 
-Straw Man #49 
-Trivial Objection/Minor Point #52    



Books (ISBN)

 A Rulebook for Arguments 978-0872209541 |  Attacking Faulty Reasoning  978-1133049982 Beyond Feelings-Guide to Critical Thinking 978-0078038181 | de Bono's Thinking Course  978-0760773215 Fallacies and Pitfalls of Language  978-0486282749 | Informal Logic -Handbook for Critical Argu  0521379253 | Logic & Contemporary Rhetoric  978-0495804116 | Reason & Argumentation  978-0137672295  |  The Elements of Reasoning 978-0534516727 |  Workbook for Arguments 978-1603845496 | Logic Made Easy 978-0393326925 | Being Logical 978-0812971156 | Nonsense: Red Herrings… 978-0975366264 |  How to Win Every Argument 978-0826498946 |  Teach Your Child How to Think  978-0140238303 | I Am Right You Are Wrong  978-0140126785 |  42 Fallacies  B004ASOS2O |  30 More Fallacies  B0051BZ8ZK  |  Informal Logical Fallacies 978-0761854333   |  With Good Reason 978-0312157586  |  Thinker's Guide to Fallacies   978-0944583272  | The Fallacy Detective 978-0974531533  |

Websites

csun.edu/~dgw61315/fallacies.html | drury.edu/Ess/Logic/Informal/Overview.html | en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Propaganda… | en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fallacy | en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_fallacies | fallacyfiles.org/taxonomy.html | goodart.org/fallazoo.htm |hubpages.com/hub/Logical-Fallacies…  | infidels.org/library/modern/mathew/logic.html | infidels.org/library/modern/mathew/logic.html | leo.stcloudstate.edu/acadwrite/logic.html | logicalfallacies.info/ | logicalfallacies/a/overview.htm |logicalfallacies/Logical_Fallacies… | nizkor.org/features/fallacies | nutshellonline.com/logical-fallacies  | onegoodmove.org/fallacy/toc.htm | skepdic.com/tilogic.html | skepticsfieldguide.net/2005/01/fallacy-list.html | stoneforest.org/critical.html |theskepticsguide.org/resources/logicalfallacies.aspx | unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/fallacies.html | web.cn.edu/kwheeler/fallacies_list.html