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Truth: Awareness Of Faulty Thinking - Avoid Thought VirusesIf you lack awareness, it is easy to be confused/mislead into reaching false conclusions. Watch for these 50+ logical errors/fallacies.(Click here to view PDF version and download list of Thought Viruses)
# | Name | Description | Group-Category01 Abusive Personal Attack: shift attention away from facts by personally attacking the individual presenting the argument |IR-h102 Ambiguity/Unclear Meaning: structure the wording of a claim to create two or more possible meanings |UR-d103 Analogy, Faulty: a comparison which is alike in some respects doesn't mean it is similar in other or all important respects |UR-e704 Authority (Questionable/Irrelevant): use the opinion of an authority who may be unqualified in current field or biased |IP-a405 Before Therefore Cause/ Post Hoc: assume that if one event comes before another it is the cause of the second |IG-f606 Black & White/Either-Or/False Dilemma: overlook other answers by restricting choices (contraries as contradictions) |UR-e607 Change Meaning of Word (Equivocation): shift the meaning of a key word in an argument resulting in deception |UR-d408 Circular Argument/True By Definition: use the conclusion as one of the premises (reassert conclusion without evidence) |UR-c109 ClichΓ©/Aphorism: cover for lack of evidence with cute phrase, parable, or story |IG-g410 Composition (Parts to Whole): if each part has a quality the whole must have the same property (good players =good team) |UR-e111 Compromise/Moderation/Golden Mean: assume a moderate view is best because it is the middle or least offensive view |UR-e412 Confusing Necessary & Sufficient Condition: meet a necessary condition but not meeting all sufficient ones |IG-f213 Distinction without Difference: attempt to distinguish from a similar losing argument with clever wording |UR-d314 Diversion (Whole to Parts): if a whole has a property or quality then each part must also have it (good team = good player) |UR-e315 Domino Effect/Slippery Slope: argue against by linking a first decision with possible unproved negative future outcomes |IG-f316 Double Standard/ Special Pleading: rule applies to you but it doesn't apply to me because of a poorly supported exception |IG-g717 Evidence, Denying: refuse to seriously consider or acknowledge evidence which is opposition to claim |IR-i118 Evidence, Ignoring / (1 Sided Assessment): ignore negative evidence or omitting it as though it was not relevant |IR-i219 Evidence, Omission: fail to include critical positive evidence which supports the claim being made |IG-g620 Fake Precision/Unknowable Statistic: present mathematical precision or essentially unknowable statistics as fact |IG-g321 False Hypothesis/Predict "if": state as fact hypothetical claims about what would happen under different conditions |IG-g222 False Opposites /Illicit Contrast (not P -> not Q): assume an unstated related contrasting claim |UR-e1023 Flattery/Excessive Praise: provide praise or flattery instead of evidence |IP-b724 Force/Threat/Intimidation: use intimidation or threat instead of presenting evidence or proper argument |IP-b125 Gambler's Fallacy/False Probability: think past independent chance events effect the odds or probability of future events |IG-f426 Generalization (Sweeping)/General Principle Misuse: assume no exceptions to general rule / use exception to disprove rule|UR-e927 Guilt By Association: use a negative view of the company kept by an opponent instead of presenting evidence |IP-b528 Humor/Ridicule: avoid appropriate arguments by distracting with humor or attacking with ridicule |IR-j329 Ignorance, Arguing From: state a conclusion as true because it hasn't been proven false (or false because not proven true) |IG-g130 Innuendo/Suggestion without Evidence: implicitly suggest a claim without actually stating it (to discredit an argument) |UR-d231 Is-Ought/Status Quo/Inertia: if it is done now, then it should continue or the reverse (if not done then don't start) |UR-e832 Label, Inference from: use a label attached to a person or thing as a though it were a sufficient reason to reach a conclusion|IG-g533 Leading Question: phrase a question unfairly or in a biased manner to force desired answer |UR-c234 Loaded-Complex Question: present assumptions/premises in a question which force acceptance regardless of the answer |UR-c335 Neglect Multiple Cause /Common Cause: think one event causes another when both are actually effects of a separate cause |IG-f536 Novelty/New Is Good: it is good just because it is different from the past |UR-e537 Out Of Context/Improper Accent: shift tone of voice to alter meaning of a quote or presenting it out of context |UR-d538 Oversimplification: use insufficient factors to account for an event |IG-f139 Past context Applied Now/Genetic: use evaluation from past context and applying it to present changed context |IP-a340 Pity/Mercy: appeal for special treatment based on sympathy as a distraction from relevant evidence |IP-b341 Poisoning The Well/Damning Source: attack motives to discredit possible future points (suggesting lying/hidden agenda) |IR-h242 Popular Opinion/Bandwagon/Polls/Everyone Does It: urge acceptance or rejection of an argument because many others do |IP-a143 Rationalize/Believe Then Prove: hide real reasons for a position with better sounding false/weak ones |IP-a544 Red Herring/Side Issue: attempt to divert attention from a weakness by presenting a distracting side issue |IR-j245 Sample, Insufficient: reach a conclusion about the whole population based on a sample that is too small |IG-g846 Sample, Unrepresentative: use biased, exceptional, or an unrepresentative sample of a population to represent the whole |IG-g947 Self Interest/Personal Circumstance: appeal to an opponent's personal interest or circumstance instead of a valid argument |IP-b248 Small Difference Irrelevant/Continuum: think a small change in a sequence doesn't matter so there is no true cut off point |UR-e249 Straw Man: distort or misrepresent an opponent's argument in order to make it easier to refute or attack |IR-j150 Strong Feelings/Mob-Crowd Appeal: appeal to mass enthusiasm or popular opinion with no supporting evidence |IP-b651 Tradition/Past is Best: appeal to reverence or respect for tradition to avoid presenting evidence |IP-b452 Trivial Objection/Minor Point: attack a minor point as though it was a major one (believing this defeats whole argument) |IR-j453 Vague Expression: assign a very specific meaning to an opponent's vague term and then attack the interpretation |UR-d654 Wrong Conclusion/Non-Sequitur: present evidence for one conclusion and then stating another |IP-a255 You Do It To/Two Wrongs Make A Right: suggest a position is reasonable because your opponent acts in a similar way |IR-h3

4 Categories of Logical Fallacies in 10 Groups

1) IRRELEVANT PREMISE [IP] A)Irrelevance/Unrelatedness B)Emotional Appeal2) UNACCEPTABLE REASON [UR] C)Begging the Question D)Linguistic Confusion E)Unwarranted Assumption
3) INSUFFICIENT GROUNDS [IG] F)Causal G)Missing Evidence4) INEFFECTIVE REBUTTAL [IR] H)Attacking the Person I)Counter Evidence J)Diversion

By Category/Group:

(A) Irrelevance/Unrelatedness [IP]-Authority (Questionable/Irrelevant) #04 -Past context Applied Now/Genetic #39 -Popular Opinion/ Bandwagon/ Polls/ Everyone Does It #42 -Rationalize/Believe Then Prove #43 -Wrong Conclusion/Non-Sequitur #54 (B) Emotional Appeal [IP] -Flattery/Excessive Praise #23 -Force/Threat/Intimidation #24 -Guilt By Association #27 -Pity/Mercy #40 -Self Interest/Personal Circumstance #47 -Strong Feelings/Mob-Crowd Appeal #50 -Tradition/Past is Best #51 (C) Begging the Question [UR] -Circular Argument/True By Definition #08 -Leading Question #33 -Loaded-Complex Question #34 (D) Linguistic Confusion [UR] -Ambiguity/Unclear Meaning #02 -Change Word Meaning (Equivocation) #07 -Distinction without Difference #13 -Innuendo/Suggest without Evidence #30 -Out Of Context/Improper Accent #37 -Vague Expression #53 (E) Unwarranted Assumption [UR] -Analogy, Faulty #03 -Black-White/Either-Or/False Dilemma #06 -Composition (Parts to Whole) #10 -Compromise/Moderation/GoldenMean #11 -Diversion (Whole to Parts) #14 -False Opposites /Illicit Contrast #22 -Generalization (Sweeping)/General -Principle Misuse #26 -Is-Ought/Status Quo/Inertia #31 -Novelty/New Is Good #36 -Small Difference Irrelevant #48
(F) Causal [IG] -Before Therefore Cause/ Post Hoc #05 -Confusing Necessary & Sufficient -Condition #12 -Domino Effect/Slippery Slope #15 -Gambler's Fallacy/False Probability #25 -Neglect Multiple/Common Cause #35 -Oversimplification #38 (G) Missing Evidence [IG] -ClichΓ©/Aphorism #09 -Double Standard/ Special Pleading #16 -Evidence, Omission #19 -Fake Precision/Unknowable Statistic #20 -False Hypothesis/Predict "if" #21 -Ignorance, Arguing From #29 -Label, Inference from #32 -Sample, Insufficient #45 -Sample, Unrepresentative #46 (H) Attacking the Person [IR] -Abusive Personal Attack #01 -Poisoning The Well/Damning Source #41 -You Do It To/2 Wrongs Make A Right #55 (I) Counter Evidence [IR] -Evidence, Denying #17 -Evidence, Ignoring (1Sided) #18 (J) Diversion [IR] -Humor/Ridicule #28 -Red Herring/Side Issue #44 -Straw Man #49 -Trivial Objection/Minor Point #52

Books (ISBN)

A Rulebook for Arguments 978-0872209541 | Attacking Faulty Reasoning 978-1133049982 | Beyond Feelings-Guide to Critical Thinking 978-0078038181 | de Bono's Thinking Course 978-0760773215 | Fallacies and Pitfalls of Language 978-0486282749 | Informal Logic -Handbook for Critical Argu 0521379253 | Logic & Contemporary Rhetoric 978-0495804116 | Reason & Argumentation 978-0137672295 | The Elements of Reasoning 978-0534516727 | Workbook for Arguments 978-1603845496 | Logic Made Easy 978-0393326925 | Being Logical 978-0812971156 | Nonsense: Red Herrings… 978-0975366264 | How to Win Every Argument 978-0826498946 | Teach Your Child How to Think 978-0140238303 | I Am Right You Are Wrong 978-0140126785 | 42 Fallacies B004ASOS2O | 30 More Fallacies B0051BZ8ZK | Informal Logical Fallacies 978-0761854333 | With Good Reason 978-0312157586 | Thinker's Guide to Fallacies 978-0944583272 | The Fallacy Detective 978-0974531533 |

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